On this day, February 24th 1525, a decisive Battle of Pavia was fought between Kingdom of France and Holy Roman Empire of Charles V.
The battle was fought in the Visconti Park of Mirabello di Pavia, outside the city walls, where Pescara and Frundsberg stationed their forces in pike and shot formation. Francis took a personal initiative and led a cavalry charge against Lannoy, with the possible intent of capturing Bourbon, but it was held by German and Spanish pikemen and pummeled by arquebus fire.
In the four-hour battle, the French army was split and defeated in detail. Many of the chief nobles of France were killed or captured. In the chaos of the battle, Francis fell from his horse and found himself surrounded by Germans and Spaniards. Two followers of the Duke of Bourbon persuaded Francis to surrender to Charles de Lannoy, who kneeled before the King and made him a prisoner. Francis was imprisoned in the Imperial tower of Pizzighettone, and then transferred to a fortress in Spain where he signed the Treaty of Madrid (1526) with Charles V.
By the terms of the treaty, France ceded Burgundy to the Habsburg Netherlands and abandoned the Imperial Duchy of Milan. The outcome of the battle cemented Habsburg ascendancy in Italy and Europe.
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